Born: May 19, 1890 Nghe An, Vietnam giới Died: September 3, 1969 Hanoi, Vietnam Vietnamese revolutionary và president
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Ho Chi Minh was the founder & first leader of the Vietnamese Communist Party. He led the movement for Vietnamese independence & unity through struggles with France and the United States. He also served as president of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam from 1945 until his death in 1969.
Ho Chi Minh was born Nguyen Sinh Cung on May 19, 1890, in Nghe An province in central Vietphái nam. Nghe An had been the center of resistance lớn the thousand-year Chinese control of Vietphái nam from 111 B.C.E. lớn 939 C.E. and the Ming Dynasty in the fifteenth century. Many of the leaders of the opposition to lớn French control in the late nineteenth & early twentieth centuries also came from the province. Ho's father, Nguyen Sinch Huy, educated himself to pass the civil service exam & worked for the government. He eventually resigned in prothử nghiệm against French involvement in Vietnamese affairs. When Ho was ten years old, his mother died while giving birth. Ho had two older siblings, a sister named Thanh khô and a brother named Khiem.
Ho's opposition to lớn colonialism (the rule of an area & its people by another country) began at the age of nine, when he worked as a messenger for an anticolonial organization. His father also introduced hyên ổn to several revolutionaries. Ho went on to lớn attover the National Academy in Hué, Vietnam. Dismissed from the academy after taking part in protests against the French in 1908, he traveled to southern Vietphái nam in 1909 and worked briefly as a schoolteacher. Ho signed on as a cook with a French steamship company in 1911. At sea for two years, he visited ports in Europe, Africa, & the United States và began to develop his language skills, eventually learning Chinese, French, Russian, English, và Tnhì in addition khổng lồ his native Vietnamese.
Committed lớn communism
During World War I (1914–18), Ho worked in London, England, & Paris, France. This is when his lifelong commitment khổng lồ communism and Vietnamese independence began. Communism refers lớn a system in which the means of production (such as l&, factories, and mines) are owned by the people as a whole rather than by individuals. Communists believe that such a system can be achieved only by revolution and government by a single party. In Paris, Ho adopted the name Nguyen Ai Quoc (Nguyen the Patriot) & attracted attention when he presented a written request lớn the Versailles Peace Conference demanding independence for Vietnam giới. Ho became a founding member of the French Communist Party in 19đôi mươi. From 1920 lớn 1923, he was an outspoken leader of the Vietnamese community in Paris, participating in the Intercolonial Union formed under Communist sponsorship & publishing two anticolonial journals.
Ho was invited lớn Moscow, Russia, in 1923, where he studied at the University of Oriental Workers. In 1925 he was sent to Đài Loan Trung Quốc lớn organize a communist movement. He formed the Tkhô hanh Nien (Vietnamese Revolutionary Youth League), whose members
Ho Chi Minh. Reproduced by permission of
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were mostly Vietnamese students in the southern Chinese port thành phố of Canton. The league called for independence, redistribution of lvà, fair taxation, and equal rights for men & women. In 1927 Ho was forced khổng lồ leave sầu Canton after a Chinese government crackdown on local communists. During his absence, the league began to lớn split inlớn different factions, or groups. Ho returned khổng lồ South China in early 1930 to unite the factions as a formal Communist Party, drawing its members from Vietphái nam, Cambodia, and Laos. He continued his organizing in Hong Kong và Shanghai but was arrested by the British in 1931 and imprisoned for two years. Released in 1933, he spent the next several years in the Soviet Union.
Return to Vietphái nam
In 1940 Ho returned lớn South China and met with members of the Indochinese Communist Party (ICP). The following May, with most of Vietnam giới under Japanese occupation, he chaired a meeting of the party's Central Committee inside the Vietnamese border, marking his first return to Vietnam in thirty years. Ho & the ICPhường then announced the formation of the Viet Minch (League for Vietnamese Independence), an organization demanding independence from French rule and Japanese military occupation. From 1941 to 1945, although imprisoned again in Trung Quốc for more than a year, Ho led the ICPhường in seeking tư vấn for the Viet Minc, forming alliances with American diplomats and intelligence officers in South Trung Quốc, helping victims of a famine that killed over two million people in north and central Vietnam from 1943 khổng lồ 1944, & building up the party's military forces.
In August 1945 Viet Minh forces attempted lớn seize power in Vietnam. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh, as president of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, stood before thousands of supporters in the thành phố of Hanoi. He proclaimed "that Vietnam has the right lớn be a không lấy phí and independent country—and in fact is so already." At the over of World War II (1939–45), the French tried lớn regain control of Vietphái mạnh. Although Ho reached a settlement agreement with the French in March 1946, calling for the creation of a Vietnamese "không lấy phí state" within the French Union, the French changed their minds. In December, war broke out between Vietnamese and French forces. By 1954 the French had tired of war & sought a settlement at the Geneva Conference. In July an agreement was reached calling for a truce và division of Vietphái mạnh inkhổng lồ a Communist north & a non-Communist south.
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After 1954 Ho Chi Minh remained president of the Democratic Republic of Vietphái mạnh và chairman of the Communist Party but slowly turned over day-to-day responsibilities to lớn others. Ho was active sầu internationally, where he promoted Vietnamese interests within other countries and attempted to prsự kiện a split between the Soviet Union & China. A l& reform campaign from 1954 to 1956 was a major failure. Modeled on l& redistribution plans developed by Chinese Communists, the reforms were very unpopular among Vietnamese peasants, some five thousand of whom were killed by Ho's government in its determination to lớn make the plan work.
Ho also oversaw the formation of the National Liberation Front (NLF) in 1960, a movement of resistance against the non-Communist government in southern Vietphái mạnh. Clashes between that government and the NLF led the United States military khổng lồ step in on the side of the South Vietnamese. As the American military commitment increased, with the arrival of American ground troops and the beginning of a heavy bombing campaign against northern Vietnam in 1965, Ho sought lớn maintain good relations with the Soviet Union và China in order lớn obtain military assistance & supplies from both Communist powers.
Beginning in the mid-1960s, Ho Chi Minh's health declined, and he made only occasional public appearances. He never married, but he was widely viewed in North Vietnam giới as the father of his country và often referred to in his later years as Bac (Uncle) Ho. He died of a heart attaông chồng on September 3, 1969, almost six years before the U.S.-backed South Vietnamese government was defeated và Vietphái nam was unified. The thành phố of Saigon was renamed Ho Chi Minc City in his honor.
For More Information
Duiker, William J. The Communist Road to lớn nguồn. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1981.
Duiker, William J. Ho Chi Minc. New York: Hyperion, 2000.
Halberstam, David. Ho. New York, Random House, 1971.
Kahin, George. Intervention. New York: Knopf, 1986.
Lloyd, Damãng cầu Ohlmeyer. Ho Chi Minh. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1986.